From iWiki

Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It is characterised by a combination of psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganised thinking, and abnormal behaviours. This wiki page provides an overview of schizophrenia, including its symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and impact on individuals and society.


The symptoms of schizophrenia can vary widely from person to person, but they are typically categorised into three main groups:

  1. Positive Symptoms: These symptoms involve a distortion of normal functioning and include hallucinations (perceiving things that are not there), delusions (believing in false and irrational ideas), disorganised thinking and speech, and abnormal motor behaviours.
  2. Negative Symptoms: Negative symptoms refer to a loss of normal functioning and include a reduction or absence of emotional expression (flat affect), decreased motivation and interest, social withdrawal, and difficulties with speech and communication.
  3. Cognitive Symptoms: Cognitive symptoms affect thinking processes and include problems with memory, attention, and executive functioning (the ability to plan and organise tasks).

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of schizophrenia is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Some factors that may contribute to the development of schizophrenia include:

  • Genetics: Having a family history of schizophrenia increases the risk of developing the disorder, suggesting a genetic component.
  • Brain Chemistry and Structure: Imbalances in certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, may play a role in the development of schizophrenia. Additionally, structural abnormalities in the brain, such as enlarged ventricles, have been observed in some individuals with schizophrenia.
  • Environmental Factors: Prenatal exposure to certain viruses or infections, complications during childbirth, and stressful life events may increase the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosing schizophrenia involves a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's symptoms, medical history, and psychological assessment. There is no specific test to diagnose schizophrenia, so healthcare professionals rely on clinical judgment based on established diagnostic criteria.

Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions. Antipsychotic medications are commonly prescribed to help manage symptoms, while psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), can assist individuals in coping with their experiences and improving their daily functioning. Psychosocial interventions, such as vocational rehabilitation and support groups, are also important in promoting recovery and helping individuals integrate into society.

Impact on Individuals and Society

Schizophrenia can have a profound impact on individuals, affecting various aspects of their lives, including relationships, work, and self-care. It is associated with higher rates of unemployment, homelessness, and social isolation. However, with appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with schizophrenia can lead fulfilling and productive lives.

In society, schizophrenia poses challenges in terms of stigma and discrimination. Misunderstandings about the disorder can lead to social exclusion and hinder opportunities for individuals with schizophrenia. Education and awareness campaigns are important for reducing stigma and promoting a more compassionate and inclusive society.